How Fabrazyme is Made

Fabrazyme is made using advanced recombinant genetic technology, a process that allows scientists to combine genes from two sources. Since 1994, Sanofi Genzyme scientists have used this technology to produce naturally occurring human proteins, including enzymes, for medications such as Fabrazyme. The complex process, which takes place at Sanofi Genzyme facilities, occurs in three stages.

Stage 1: Growing Cells to Produce Human Enzyme

Making Fabrazyme begins by inserting the human gene for the alpha-GAL enzyme (the enzyme that is deficient in people with Fabry disease) into CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. The majority of biotechnology drug products produced today are from CHO cells.

Once the CHO cells have the gene, they will begin to manufacture the human alpha-GAL enzyme. For this to happen, the cells are kept under special conditions in large tanks called bioreactors. Each day, liquid is removed from the bioreactor, and the enzyme those cells have produced is collected for purification.

Production bioreactors image
Production bioreactors like this one enable large-scale manufacturing of human proteins for ERT

Stage 2: Enzyme Purification

Because Fabrazyme is infused directly into the bloodstream, it must meet very high standards for purity and safety. At Sanofi Genzyme, the enzyme is purified using a process called column chromatography. Chromatography is a method of separating and isolating the parts of a mixture to remove the unwanted substances. As the enzyme moves through multiple chromatography columns, it becomes more purified.

Column filtering image
Column filtering systems help eliminate unwanted compounds from the material that contains the enzyme

Stage 3: Filling and Finishing

After purification, the enzyme is put into sterile glass vials. After the vials are filled, they are placed into a freeze dryer for about 48 hours. In the freeze dryer, water evaporates off the enzyme and leaves a cake-like dry substance. In this form, the enzyme is more stable. Multiple tests are conducted through the manufacturing process to help ensure Fabrazyme meets the highest quality standards. Each vial is inspected by hand before it is released and made available to patients.

Making Fabrazyme is a highly complex process that takes several months and could only be accomplished after many years of development and testing.

Indication and Usage

Fabrazyme® (agalsidase beta) is used to treat patients with Fabry disease. Fabrazyme lowers the amount of a substance called globotriaosylceramide (GL-3), which builds up in cells lining the blood vessels of the kidney and certain other cells.

The lowering of GL-3 suggests that Fabrazyme may improve how Fabry disease affects your body; however a relationship of lower GL-3 to specific signs and symptoms of Fabry disease has not been proven.

Important Safety Information

Fabrazyme can cause serious side effects, including:
Severe Allergic Reactions (anaphylaxis): Life-threatening severe allergic (anaphylactic) reactions have been seen in patients during Fabrazyme infusions. Approximately 1% of patients who have received Fabrazyme either during a clinical study or after Fabrazyme was approved have experienced anaphylactic or severe allergic reactions during their infusion.
  • These reactions have included: localized swelling of the face, mouth and throat, narrowing of breathing airways, low blood pressure, hives, difficulty swallowing, rash, trouble breathing, flushing, chest discomfort, itching and nasal congestion.
  • People who have experienced these reactions have required treatment including heart/lung resuscitation, oxygen, fluids given through the vein, hospitalization, and have needed treatment with inhaled drugs called beta-adrenergic agonists to help open the breathing airways, antihistamines, epinephrine (also known as adrenalin), and a medication given through the vein called a corticosteroid (or steroid) which helps to decrease the body’s allergic reaction by decreasing inflammation.
  • If you experience a severe allergic or anaphylactic reaction, your healthcare professional will immediately stop the infusion of Fabrazyme and provide you the necessary emergency medical treatment. Because of the possibility that severe allergic reactions may occur, appropriate medical support should be available during your Fabrazyme infusion.
Infusion-Associated Reactions: In clinical studies with Fabrazyme, 59% of patients experienced infusion-associated reactions during Fabrazyme administration, some of which were severe.
  • For patients who have had reactions to their infusions, it is recommended that they be given anti-fever and antihistamine medications right before their next infusions. Infusion-associated reactions have happened in some patients even after taking these medications before their infusions.
  • If an infusion reaction occurs, slowing the infusion rate, stopping the infusion for a short time and/or giving more anti-fever and antihistamine medications and or steroids may improve the symptoms.
  • If severe infusion-associated reactions happen, your healthcare professional should consider stopping the Fabrazyme infusion right away and should provide medical care for your condition. Severe reactions are generally managed by giving antihistamine medications, corticosteroids, fluids through the vein, and/or oxygen when needed. Because severe infusion-associated reactions may happen, medical treatment should be readily available during your Fabrazyme infusion.

Pre-existing Heart Problems: People with advanced Fabry disease may have heart problems, which may put them at a higher risk for severe complications from infusion-associated reactions. These patients should be watched closely during their infusion if the decision is made to give them Fabrazyme.

Immune Response and Continued Treatment After Allergic Reaction: In the clinical studies, a few patients developed IgE antibodies or a reaction to an allergy skin test specific to Fabrazyme. IgE antibodies are usually produced by the body’s immune system during an allergic reaction. Your doctor should consider testing for IgE antibodies if you experience suspected allergic reactions. Providing Fabrazyme to patients who have experienced severe or serious allergic reactions to Fabrazyme should only be done after carefully considering the risks and benefits of continuing the treatment, and only under the direct supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and with appropriate medical support readily available.

Common and Other Possible Side Effects:
  • Common side effects reported in 20% or more of Fabrazyme treated patients in clinical studies compared to placebo were upper respiratory tract infection, headache, cough, burning and/or tingling sensation, fatigue, dizziness, swelling in the legs, and rash.
  • Serious and/or frequently occurring side effects (occurring in 5% or more of the patients) thought to be related to Fabrazyme in placebo-controlled and open-label clinical studies have included: chills, fever, feeling hot or cold, trouble breathing, nausea, flushing of the skin, headache, vomiting, burning and/or tingling sensation, fatigue, itching, pain in the hands and feet, high blood pressure, chest pain, throat tightness, abdominal pain, dizziness, rapid heart rate, nasal congestion, diarrhea, swelling in the legs, muscle pain, back pain, paleness of the skin, slow heart rate, hives, low blood pressure, face swelling, rash and sleepiness.
  • Other serious side effects that were seen in the clinical studies included stroke, pain, lack of muscle coordination, slow or irregular heartbeat, stopping of the heartbeat, decreased blood pumped by the heart, dizziness, and kidney problems resulting in too much protein leaving the body in the urine (nephrotic syndrome). These side effects also occur as part of Fabry disease.
  • Since Fabrazyme has been approved, there have been side effects that resulted in death that may or may not be related to the use of Fabrazyme. These included: the heart and/or lungs stop working (known as cardiorespiratory arrest, respiratory failure, and/or cardiac failure), life-threatening infection in the blood stream (known as sepsis), stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and pneumonia. Some of these side effects were reported in Fabry disease patients with significant underlying disease.

The safety and effectiveness of Fabrazyme in patients younger than 8 years of age have not been studied.

Please see full prescribing information for Fabrazyme.

The Manufacturing Process

Learn more about this step-by-step process of producing enzyme replacement therapies like Fabrazyme in this Guide to Manufacturing at Sanofi Genzyme.